Once a prioritised set of potential policy options is determined, the next and final step is to develop the proposed policies and structure them into potential policy packages. To this, it is important to consider the roles of government (central and local), business and other stakeholders, such as community members, when classifying the different policies (see Table below).

Top-down Bottom-up Hybrid
Feature of the approach Led by a governmental body Driven by the governed
Drafting mode Experts Participatory
Actors States, European institutions, Ministries Community members, NGOs, businesses and other organisations Inclusive of both, top-down and bottom-up actors
Examples Crit’Air certificates Som Energia Scenario 100% RE by 2050

Furthermore, use the “Policy Canvas” framework is useful as an initial step towards developing each policy recommendation. This tool is built on the same logic as the Business Model Canvas (Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2010) and aims to facilitate the policy-design process. The “Policy Canvas” framework can be described through nine building blocks: context, actors, tools, policy recommendation, approach, objectives, obstacles, acceptance and assessment. The “Policy Recommendations Block” is the core of the canvas around which the other blocks are articulated.