The paradigm shift in Germany has been driven mainly by a comprehensive energy transition that is also known as Energiewende. The term was born in the 1970s in an attempt by opponents of nuclear power to show that an alternative energy supply was possible. A key milestone in this paradigm shift has been the Integrated Energy and Climate Program (IECP) of 2007, the so-called “Meseberger Programm”, which gave an overall framework for climate friendly energy supply in Germany and provides explicit sectoral emission reduction targets until 2020. In 2010, the German government initiated a new Energy Concept, a comprehensive strategy covering both medium (2030) and long (2050) term strategies, which has driven the energy policy since then. It proposes a substantial transition of energy use to reduce carbon emissions in all these sectors simultaneously, which mixes previous strategies and climate policy packages in one national strategy. The nuclear catastrophe in Fukushima was an additional policy push to move forward this paradigm shift. A societal and political consensus in Germany emerged against nuclear and the energy transition was accelerated. The main issues regarding energy in Germany are:
- Germany's GHG emissions in 2013 were estimated at 954.7 million tons of CO2 equivalents, the largest of EU countries.
- Highly oil dependence
- Energiewende is often narrowly associated with a power sector transformation
- Security of Supply – with specific Act on Energy Security of Supply
- The generation of electricity from combined-heat-and-power is to be raised to 25% by 2020
- Energy efficiency: a 20 per cent reduction in primary energy consumption by 2020 compared with 2008 and halve it by 2050.
- Reduce primary energy by 571 kToes/year until 2020
- By 2020 have a RES share in Electricity (39%), Heating and cooling (17.%) and Transportation (11.3%); for a total of 20.8% o the primary energy consumption
- Germany’s GHG emissions in 2013 were estimated at 954.7 million tons of CO2 equivalents, the largest of EU countries
- Highly Oil dependence
- Energiewende is often narrowly associated with a power sector transformation.
Targets & Roadmaps
- The share of renewables used in power generation is to be raised to 80% in 2050
Main Discourses at Public level
- Define the Energy Concept in September 2010, in which the Federal Government set out guidelines for ensuring an environmentally sound, reliable, and affordable energy supply, thus mapping the transition into the age of renewables
Main Events as drivers
- The EU Directives are the guidelines that the countries have to or should follow
- The Imbalance of the Energy system (deficit of tariff) together with the Economic situation, cut the subsidies and the fostering
- German patent applications in the fields of renewable energies and energy efficiency are on the same level as US and Japanese applications (2011).
- Legislation changes, from a favourable position to foster RES to a current non attractive laws; had an impact to the investments and power installed
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