The different Europeanisation processes identified reflect that the European energy project is a driver of the national transition of the energy system. It develops a long-term vision detailing the objective and the time framework, which has been designed as a large and non-excluding corridor to encompass all MS energy systems. It is also malleable - to some extent - since it is shaped by European institutions, lobbies and Member States.
Unexpected events can also have important impacts on national energy strategies. The Fukushima disaster, the economic crisis, etc. have been strong game changers pushing MS “outside” the European vision. It may result in quicker transformation of the national energy policy than the one that could have been achieved by the alignment with the European energy integration. Via the power game, and Member States would attempt to deform the corridor to defend its own interests. Nonetheless, the integration of the European regulatory texts will progressively take the and Member States back to the corridor defined by the European strategy.
Member States’ energy systems are integrated to some extent. To face global challenges, such as energy security or climate change, the transition toward a low carbon economy requires a meaningful, coherent and comprehensive EU energy policy to ease the process and establish the main strategic directions. The creation of this EU energy policy is shaped through Europeanisation.
The innovative conceptual approach to study Europeanisation implemented in this document is based on the characterisation of the Europeanisation processes that were identified. Europeanisation is a dynamic process that results from numerous influences. This study argues that Europeanisation contributes to carving out a corridor in which Members States operate the transition of their energy system and integrate the different aspects of the Competitive, Secure and Sustainable framework and Energy Union project. Nonetheless, the national characteristics of energy systems and international events could appear as major game changers that have a direct impact on national energy strategies.
Taking into account the result of the analysis carried out, this document proposes recommendations that could promote the alignment of national policies with the European energy strategy.